Peer-reviewed publications

For our most up-to-date publication list, please visit our Google Scholar or Researchgate pages:

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Gyawali P, Hamilton K, Joshi S, Aster D, Ahmed W. Identification of reliable marker genes to identify canine fecal contamination in sub-tropical Australia. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, in press.

Singh R, Hamilton KA, Rasheduzzaman M, Yang Z, Kar S, Fasnacht A, Masters S, Gurian PL. Managing water quality in premise plumbing: Subject matter experts’ (SMEs) perspectives and a systematic review of guidance documents. Water, 2020, 12(2): 347; doi:

Hamilton KA, Ahmed W, Rauh E, McLain J, Rock C, Muenich RL. Microbial risk assessments for biosolids: Comparing microbial risks from multiple sustainable waste streams applied for agricultural use: Biosolids, manure, and diverted urine. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 2020, in press:


Rasheduzzaman M†, Haas CN, Tolofari D, Yassaghi H, Hamilton KA, Singh R, Bartrand B, Yang Z, Gurian PL. Correction: Reverse QMRA as a Decision Support Tool: Setting Acceptable Concentration Limits for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Naegleria fowleri. Water 2019, 11(9), 1850.

Rasheduzzaman M, Haas CN, Tolofari D, Yassaghi H, Hamilton KA, Singh R, Bartrand B, Yang Z, Gurian PL. Reverse QMRA as a decision support tool: Setting acceptable concentration limits for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Naegleria folweri. Water, 2019, in press.

Waters EK, Ahmed W, Hamilton KA, Plaskins D, Stark D. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) as a potential source for Blastocystis spp. in roof-harvested rainwater. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, 2019, in press.

Rycroft T, Hamilton K, Haas CN, Linkov I. A quantitative risk assessment method for synthetic biology products. Science of the Total Environment, 2019, in press.

Ahmed W, Hamilton KA, Toze S, Cook S, Page D. A review on microbial contaminants in stormwater runoff and outfalls: Health risks and mitigation strategies. Science of the Total Environment, 2019, in press.

Zhang Q, Gallard J, Wu B, Harwood VJ, Sadowsky MJ, Hamilton KA, Ahmed W. Synergy between quantitative microbial risk assessment and microbial source tracking (MST): A review and prospectus. Environment International, 2019, in press.

Hamilton KA, Reyneke B, Waso M, Clements T, Ndlovu T, Khan W, Digiovanni K, Rakestraw E, Montalto F, Haas CN, Ahmed W. Insights into the health risk of microbial contaminants in roof-harvested rainwater tanks. NPJ Clean Water, 2019, 2(7).

Hamilton KA, Hamilton MT, Johnson W, Jjemba P, LeChevallier M, Haas CN, Gurian PL. Risk-based critical concentrations of Legionella pneumophila for indoor water uses. Environmental Science & Technology, 2019, 53(8):


Trump BD, Foran C, Rycroft T, Wood MD, Bandolin N, Cains M, Cary T, Crocker F, Friedenberg NA, Gurian P, Hamilton K, Hoover JJ, Meyer C, Pokrzywinski K, Ritterson R, Schulte P, Warner C, Perkins E, Linkov I. Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: Contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases. Environmental Systems and Decisions, 2018, 37(4):517-527.

Hamilton KA, Waso M, Reyneke B, Saeidi N, Beale D, Levine A, Lalancette C, Besner M-C, Khan W, Ahmed W. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and surface water environments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2018, 47(5): 1006-1023.

Ahmed W, Hamilton KA, Palmer A, Smith K, Toze S, Haas CN. Seasonal abundance of fecal indicators and opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks. Open Health Data, 2018, 5(1):1

Ahmed W, Hamilton KA, Lobos A, Hughes B, Staley C, Sadowsky MJ, Harwood VJ. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of microbial source tracking markers in recreational water contaminated with fresh untreated and secondary treated sewage. Environment International, 2018, 117:243-249.

Hamilton KA, Prussin II AJ, Ahmed W, Haas CN. Outbreaks of Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever 2006-2017. Current Environmental Health Reports, 2018, 5(2): 263-271.

Hamilton KA, Chen A, de-Graft Johnson E, Gitter A, Kozak S, Niquice C, Zimmer-Faust A, Weir MH, Gurian P, Mitchell J. Salmonella risks due to consumption of aquaculture-produced shrimp. Microbial Risk Assessment, 2018, 9:22-32.

Sunger N, Hamilton KA, Morgan PM, Haas CN. Comparison of pathogen-derived ‘Total Risk’ with indicator-based correlations for recreational (swimming) exposure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018:1-11

Ahmed W, Ishii S, Zhang Q, Hamilton KA, Haas CN. Microfluidic quantification of multiple enteric and opportunistic bacterial pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tank samples. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2018, 190(2):105.

Hamilton KA, Parrish K, Ahmed W, Haas CN. Assessment of water quality in roof-harvested rainwater barrels in Greater Philadelphia. Water, 2018, 10(2): 92.

Hamilton KA, Hamilton MT, Johnson W, Jjemba P, LeChevallier M, Haas CN. Health risks from exposure to Legionella in reclaimed water aerosols: Toilet flushing, spray irrigation, and cooling towers. Water Research, 2018, 134: 261-279.

Waso M, Dobrowsky PH, Hamilton KA, Puzon J, Khan W, Ahmed W. Abundance of Naegleria fowleri in roof-harvested rainwater tank samples from two continents. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018, 25(6):5700-5710.


Chaudhry RM, Hamilton KA, Haas CN, Nelson K. Drivers of microbial risk for direct potable reuse and de facto reuse treatment schemes: The impact of source water quality and blending. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017, 14(6):635.

Hamilton KA, Ahmed W, Toze S, Haas CN. Health risks for Legionella and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from potable and non-potable uses of roof-harvested rainwater. Water Research, 2017, 119: 288-303.

Kirs M, Moravic P, Gyawali P, Hamilton K, Kisland V, Gurr I, Shuler C, Ahmed W. Rainwater harvesting in American Samoa: Current practices and health risks. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017, 24(13):12384-12392.

Hamilton KA, Ahmed W, Palmer A, Smith K, Toze S, Haas CN. A seasonal assessment of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks. Environmental Science & Technology, 2017, 51(3): 1742-1753.

Hamilton KA, Weir MH, Haas CN. Dose response models and a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework for the Mycobacterium avium complex that account for recent developments in molecular biology, taxonomy, and epidemiology. Water Research, 2017, 109: 310-326.

Ahmed WA, Hamilton KA, Vieritz A, Powell D, Goonetilleke A, Hamilton MT, Gardner T. Microbial risk from source-separated urine used as liquid fertilizer in sub-tropical Australia. Microbial Risk Analysis, 2017, 5:53-64.

Ahmed W., Staley C, Hamilton KA, Beale DJ, Sadowsky MJ, Toze S, Haas, CN. Amplicon-based taxonomic characterization of bacteria in urban and peri-urban roof-harvested rainwater stored in tanks. Science of the Total Environment, 2017, 576:326-334.

Prasad B, Hamilton K, Haas CN. Incorporating time-dose-response in Legionella outbreak models. Risk Analysis, 2017, 37(2):291-304.


Hamilton K, Ahmed WA, Sidhu J, Palmer A, Hodgers L, Haas CN, Toze S. Public health Implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater. Environmental Research, 2016, 150:32-327.

Ahmed W, Hamilton K, Gyawali P, Toze S, Haas CN. Evidence of avian and possum fecal contamination in rainwater tanks as determined by microbial source tracking approaches. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2016, 82(14): 4379-4386.

Hamilton K, Haas CN. Critical review of mathematical approaches for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of Legionella in engineered water systems: research gaps and a new framework. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 2016, 2:599-613.

Ahmed WA, Harwood V, Nguyen K, Young S, Hamilton K, Toze S. Utility of Helicobacter spp. associated GFD markers for detecting avian fecal pollution in environmental waters of two continents. Water Research 2016, 88:613-622.


Ryan M, Hamilton K, Hamilton M. Evaluating the potential for a H. pylori maximum contaminant level. Risk Analysis 2014, 34(9): 1651-1662.


Kleinstreuer NC, Dix DJ, Houck KA, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB, Martin MT, Paul KB, Reif DM, Crofton KM, Hamilton K, Hunter R, Shah I, Judson RS. In Vitro perturbations of target in cancer hallmark processes predict rodent chemical carcinogenesis. Toxicological Science 2012, 131(1): 40-55.


Rocha DFO, Hamilton K, Goncalves CCS, Machado G, Marsaioli AJ. 6 Alkyl-3,4-dihydro-2H pyrans: Chemical Secretion Compounds in Neotropical Harvestmen. J. Natural Products 74.4(2011), 658-663.